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Covert Spy and Security

Covert

 

According to the Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, a covert operation (also as CoveOps or covert ops) is "an operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor." It is intended to create a political effect which can have implications in the military, intelligence or law enforcement arenas. Covert operations aim to fulfill their mission objectives without any parties knowing who sponsored or carried out the operation.

Under United States law, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) must lead covert operations unless the president finds that another agency should do so and properly informs the congress. Normally, the CIA is the US Government agency legally allowed to carry out covert action.[1] The CIA's authority to conduct covert action comes from the National Security Act of 1947.[2] President Ronald Reagan issued Executive Order 12333 titled in 1984. This order defined covert action as "special activities", both political and military, that the US Government could legally deny. The CIA was also designated as the sole authority under the 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act and in Title 50 of the United States Code Section 413(e).[2][3] The CIA must have a "Presidential Finding" issued by the President of the United States in order to conduct these activities under the Hughes-Ryan amendment to the 1991 Intelligence Authorization Act.[1] These findings are then monitored by the oversight committees in both the US Senate and the House of Representatives.[4] As a result of this framework, the CIA “receives more oversight from the Congress than any other agency in the federal government”.[5] The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the CIA's National Clandestine Service, responsible for Covert Action and "Special Activities". These special activities include covert political influence and paramilitary operations. The division is overseen by the United States Secretary of State[2]

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FAA Safety Team | Safer Skies Through Education

New ADS-B Terminal Services Are Available Now
Notice Number: NOTC3486

Attention Pilots
New ADS-B Terminal Services Are Available Now

 

Pilots who use the terminal airspace listed below can now receive free traffic and weather information in the cockpit. To receive these services, aircraft must be equipped with an Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) transmitter/receiver or transceiver and a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). 


Service Volume Name


Airport ID


Atlanta


ATL

Atwater-Castle

MER

Bakersfield                  

BFL

Barksdale AFB

BAD

Baton Rouge

BTR

Beaumont

BPT

Bradley-Windsor Locks

BDL

Burbank                      

BUR

Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood

FLL

Fresno                       

FAT

Ft Myers

RSW

Gainesville

GNV

Gwinn (KI Sawyer)

SAW

Houston-Hobby          

HOU

Houston-Intercontinental        


IAH

Jacksonville

JAX

Kansas City

MCI

Lafayette

LFT

Lake Charles

LCH

Los Angeles

LAX

Marysville-Beale AFB                  

BAB

Merced

MCE

Miami

MIA

Minneapolis-St. Paul            


MSP

Mobile

MOB

Monroe

MLU

Monterey/Fort Ord Marina                     


MRY

NAS Whiting Field (Milton)

NSE

New Orleans

MSY

Oakland

OAK

Ontario

ONT

Orlando

MCO

Palm Springs                 

PSP

Patrick AFB

COF

Pensacola

PNS

Pensacola NAS

NPA

Pittsburgh

PIT

Richmond

RIC

Sacramento-McClellan                  


MCC

San Francisco

SFO

San Jose

SJC

Sanford

SFB

Santa Barbara                

SBA

Santa Maria

SMX

Sarasota-Bradenton

SRQ

Savannah

SAV

Seattle-Tacoma               

SEA

Shreveport

SHV

Stockton                      

SCK

Tampa

TPA

West Palm Beach

PBI



The new services include:
 
Flight Information Service - Broadcast (FIS-B), which provides pilots and flight crews with a cockpit display of aviation weather and aeronautical information via Universal Access Transceiver (UAT) equipment on 978 MHz.  Note:  FIS-B is not compatible with 1090ES avionics.

  • The following FIS-B weather products are for advisory use only.  The information provided by FIS-B can not be used in compliance of any regulatory requirement.   Pre-flight weather briefings and in-flight weather updates must be obtained through FAA approved sources only.
    o        Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs).
    o        Special Aviation Reports (SPECIs).
    o        Terminal Area Forecasts (TAFs) and their amendments.
    o        NEXRAD (regional and CONUS) precipitation maps.
    o        Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Distant and Flight Data Center.
    o        Airmen’s Meteorological Conditions (AIRMET).
    o        Significant Meteorological Conditions (SIGMET) and Convective SIGMET.
    o        Status of Special Use Airspace (SUA).
    o        Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs).
    o        Winds and Temperatures Aloft.
    o        Pilot Reports (PIREPS).
    o        TIS-B service status.

Traffic Information Service - Broadcast (TIS-B), which enhances a pilot's visual acquisition of other traffic on 978 UAT and 1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES).

  • TIS-B is an advisory only service.  Pilots must continue to exercise vigilance to “see and avoid” other aircraft in accordance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations Section 91.113b.

The following table lists which type of data link is required to receive TIS-B and FIS-B services: 


If the aircraft is equipped with the following data link…


Then the pilot can receive the following services…


978 MHz Universal Access Transceiver (UAT)


TIS-B and FIS-B


1090 MHz Extended Squitter (1090 ES)


TIS-B


The FAA encourages users of TIS-B and FIS-B to report any irregularities observed while using the services. Reports should contain the following information:
1.       Time of observation.
2.       Location.
3.       Type and identity of the aircraft.
4.       Description of the condition observed.
5.       Type of avionics system and software version used.
 
You can report issues by contacting the nearest Air Traffic Control (ATC) facility, Flight Service Station (FSS) facility, or by submitting FAA Form 8740-5, Safety Improvement Report, available from FSSs, Flight Standards District Offices, or general aviation fixed-based operators.
When the service is not available, as result of a service volume network being out of service, the service condition will be NOTAMed as NOT AVBL.
 
EXAMPLE -    !PHL PHL SVC TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE BROADCAST NOT AVBL
 
Additional information about ADS-B services can be found in the Aeronautical Information Manual at the following link:  http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/ATpubs/AIM/
For more information about the FAA’s ADS-B program, visit http://www.ads-b.gov. 
 
Questions?    
Contact the FAA Flight Standards ADS-B Office at 9-AWA-AVS-ADS-Programs-AFS@faa.gov.
Contact the FAA Aircraft Certification ADS-B Office at 9-AWA-AVS-ADS-Programs-AIR@faa.gov.